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Challenges Facing Africa and Nature of African Conflicts

Earlier today In Wowos Political Science Club (WPSC) we discussed the issue of Malema and the African Union debate or argument or should I say fighting. This fighting made me to look deeper into the challenges facing Africa and the Nature of African conflicts. During the WPSC debate, I was also challenged to advise what I have done for Africa and/or doing. It is for this reason that I share my writing with you tonight. 

 

During the special session of the assembly of the union on the consideration and resolution of conflicts in Africa, which took place in Tripoli on 31 August 2009, the Heads of State and Government of the African Union (AU) took a decision to convene a Special Session where they reflected on the then growing concern at the persistence of conflict and crisis situations on the continent (African Union, 2009). Paragraph 19 of that declaration stated (2009, p. 4), “We therefore undertake to build the capacity of our universities and research institutes to explore the nature of African conflicts, to investigate what succeeds and what fails in conflict resolution efforts, and to arrive at African-centered solutions, drawing from our own distinctive and unique experiences”.

 

Africa, predicted to have the most of the world population growth between 2020 to 2050 with over 1.5 billion people is perceived to be corrupt, prone to political instability, has many coups, brutal acts, ongoing civil wars, no development, deficiencies in education, no access to safe water, poverty, poor health, toxic followership, incompetent, lack of ethical governance, poor leadership and toxic leadership[1] (Ngambi, 2011; Thabo Mbeki Foundation - African Leadership Institute, 2017). 

 

To give examples of the foregoing paragraph and to showcase the conflicts that have occurred in Africa over the years, here are some of the cases, where, in certain occasions, even the world leaders did not do much: (i) ethic violence in Rwanda in 1994 that left eight hundred thousand dead in just one hundred days; (ii) major ethnic killings in Burundi; (iii) Mauritania, which suffered over ten coups and coup attempts since its independence in 1960; (iv) 2007 Kenya election foul play; (v) on 25 September 1993, a U.S helicopter was shot down in Somalia in what was a proliferation of armed factions and gangs in a war; (vi) in the remote Sudanese province of Darfur, from 2004, the government of the day, persecuted people (severe atrocities) and the Security Council had no desire to place the item even on its agenda (Annan & Mousavizadeh, 2013). 

 

Bennis (1989) explains that leaders see opportunity in a conflict and that leaders never avoid or repress or deny conflict. He argued that hard times do not deter a leader. It is probably for this reason that in year 2010, at the review conference in Kampala, Uganda, Annan (2013) made it clear that the International Criminal Court (ICC) is more needed in Africa because of the weaknesses of its judicial systems. Annan claimed that if the brutal cases, as mentioned in the foregoing paragraph, could be reduced, there will be no need for ICC. 

 

Ngambi (2011, p. 22) maintains that a leader should never run away from a conflict. Ngambi further describes a leader as someone who has, “the posture of a lion and the view of an eagle”. Annan asserts that no secretary-general has the luxury of choosing whom to engage with as your mission, when you are a secretary-general, is to deal with those who can make a difference and those that can stop the bloodshed. He stated that one must be able to sit down with leaders such as Saddam, Bushiri, or Gadhafi. 

 

It has to be stated that sometimes the leaders in high offices of the land, were, at times, unable to win or convince others to resolve the conflict. Kofi Annan (2013), the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1997 to December 2006 (United Nations, n.d.), in his book titled, “Interventions”, relates a story of how his first statement of alarm at the situation of Darfur was ignored by the Security Council. 

 

It has to be acknowledged that there have been successes in resolving some of the conflicts in Africa. For example, in May 2000 an intervention by a British military task force routed the rebel factions and returned the balance to Sierra Leone’s political system (Annan & Mousavizadeh, 2013). The UN (n.d.) reported that Kofi Annan mediated a settlement of the dispute between Cameroon and Nigeria. In a mediation process, the Mediator has a duty to call all the stakeholders, various leaders and determine what steps to complete (e.g. identify the problem, rationalise, consult, execute sequentially to find alternatives and the solution or decision[2]). The models of Gibson, Donelly, Invancevich(1997), Stepp (2003), and Scott and Bruce (1995) are some of the methods that a mediator can or should exercise. 

 

Your feedback will be highly appreciate on this. 

 

In my next writing, I will share with you the architecture that CADEL can use, as a tool, to always “defend” the human rights of individuals. 

Thank you for reading and good night. 

Warm regards,

Wonga Ntshinga, 

Founder - Wowos Club

 

Bibliography

 

Annan, K. & Mousavizadeh, N., 2013. Interventions. New York: Penguin Books.

African Union, 2009. Tripoli Declaration on the Elimination of Conflicts in Africa and the Promotion of Sustainable Peace, Ethopia: African Union.

Ngambi, H., 2011. RARE leadership: An alternative leadership approach for Africa. International Journal of African Renaissance Studies, 6(1), pp. 6-23.

Thabo Mbeki Foundation - African Leadership Institute, 2017. Introduction to Thought Leadership for Africa's Renewal. Pretoria: University of South Africa.

United Nations, n.d. United Nations Secretary-General. [Online] 
Available at: https://www.un.org/sg/en/content/kofi-annan

Gibson, J. L., Donelly, J. H. & Invancevich, J. M., 1997. Organizations: Behavior, Structure, Processes. 9th ed. Chicago: Irwin.

Scott, S. G. & Bruce, R. A., 1995. Decision-Making Style: The Development and Assessment of a New Measure. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 55(5), pp. 818-831.

Stepp, J. A., 2003. How Does The Mediation Process Work?. [Online] 
Available at: https://www.mediate.com/articles/steppJ.cfm

Tarter, J. & Hoy, W. K., 1998. Toward a contingency theory of decision making. Journal of Educational Administration, pp. 212-228.

Bennis, W., 1989. Why leaders can't lead. Los Angeles: Jossey-Bass.

Ndlovu, S. M. & Strydom, M., 2016. The Thabo Mbeki I know. Johannesburg: Picardor Africa.

United Nations, n.d. United Nations. [Online] 
Available at: https://www.un.org/en/
[Accessed 30 October 2020].

International Criminal Court, n.d. International Criminal Court. [Online] 
Available at: https://www.icc-cpi.int
[Accessed 30 October 2020].

African Union, n.d. About the African Union. [Online] 
Available at: https://au.int/en/overview
[Accessed 30 October 2020].

 

[1] In this blog we adapt the definition of Ngambi who defines leadership as a “process of influencing others commitment towards realizing their full potential in achieving value adding shared vision with passion and integrity”.

[2] A “good decision” follows the definition of Tarter and Hoy (1998) who claim that “a good decision happens when an existing solution matches a problem.”

Start professing words that give life into your lives

As you know we celebrated 22 years as a club. I am taking you back to an article that was written in May 2010. Our then Senior Editor, Babalwa Ursula Mabope, wrote as follows (I needed to hear this today):  ATT:   WONGA NTSHINGA
           WOWO’S CLUB

Article: May 2010 

 

Start professing words that give life into your lives

“There is a miracle in your mouth. If you want to change your world, start by changing your words”. These are powerful words. They are so powerful that they should apply to all of us. What you are about to read below is nothing new but a reminder.

All things start with a thought. “ I want to have a good relationship with my family”; “I want to apply for a new position at my work”; “I want a new car”; “I want to be able to retire young”; “ I want to mentor someone, be a blessing in their lives“; “I deserve a better life”. However imagine if our thoughts were negative words such as; “but I can’t have all of that, I’m not that good of a person, I just don’t think I deserve anything good in my life”. 

It is true that what we profess with our lips does come true. When we don’t see the cup half full, are always whining and speaking negatively we will receive just that, that which is average. Calling something into being is important in determining whether we will in actual fact receive what is above average, nothing but good things. In our tongue lies the power for success or failure in our lives.

I’m careful not to say negative things about myself or being defeated before I even get started. I cringe when I hear people refer to themselves in a negative way, labeling themselves in derogatory words.  

I do not let someone speak ill of my future, in fact I do not listen to such people. I AM a wonderful woman of God who is deserving of wonderful things, that God wishes to give to me regardless what the world says. 

I call what isn’t as though it was. I speak well of my future. I receive what I want before I can actually receive it in the physical form. I live with the faith and belief that I am deserving of good things. This has nothing to do with the mistakes I have made.

Among other things negative words breathe insecurity. When we profess negative words we draw from an impure spirit. A negative and infectious spirit that leads to self-destruction. Through our negative words the enemy declares a reign of terror in our lives. You are giving him a foothold, ruin and confusion he will create. He will attack your self-esteem and confidence. How do you give yourself permission to belittle yourself and use your tongue to declare the impossibility in your life? do you look at your negative/disabilities and let them define who you are? 

Do you belittle your creativity and gifts? If so, then how do you expect to prosper and see greatness which is inside of you? STOP sowing a bad seed and start reaping success, good health, better relationships and a great life. Perhaps everyday you need to proclaim; “I am of God”; I am great“; “I am intelligent“, “I am a hard worker“; “I am a good father/mother” “I am a good daughter/son and “I am a good sister/brother/friend”. It is time we professed how good we are and claim our favour and blessings from God without expecting Him not to answer your prayers. If you are battling a sickness believe and profess that you are healed. If you are in debt believe and profess that you are debt free, nothing is holding you back. The power is in your tongue, believe it!    

Joel Osteen says; Quit complaining that nothing good ever happens to you and start declaring; “Everything I touch prospers and succeeds”. We must stop cursing the darkness. Let’s start commanding the light to come”.

With that being said, let us look at positive words we can say when faced with challenges. Let us consider the following:

- “This too shall pass, I am well on my way”;
- “I am a champion, a conqueror”;
- “I am a good leader”;
- “no mountain is too high for me to climb”;
- “I can do anything through Christ who strengthens me”;
- “my husband/wife/partner can’t get enough of me”
 
I wish you all a glorious and fruitful life. May you speak pleasant words of wisdom, encouraging words that bring flavor to and amend your broken relationships!

Thank you for listening

Babalwa Ursula Mabope
Senior Editor
Wowo’s Club   

Happy Workers’ Day

1 May 2021

 

 

Today, we celebrated the International Workers’ Day in South Africa. Wowos Club would like to salute all the members who are hard workers of this country and we salute you all today, especially those who are our front-line workers – the health workers, retail personnel, police, and security services. 

In their book, “The Leadership Pipeline – how to build the leadership powered company”, Charan, Drotter and Noel (2011: 20) wrote, “Coaching is also essential at this level because first-line managers frequently don’t receive formal training in how to be a manager; they’re dependent on their bosses to instruct them on the job. Coaching requires time – they need to go through the instruction performance feedback cycle with their people repeatedly before lessons sink in – and some managers aren’t willing to reallocate their time in this way. In many organisations, coaching ability isn’t rewarded (and the lack of it isn’t penalized). It’s no wonder that relatively few managers view coaching as mission-critical”. 

 

 

Happy Freedom Day Wowos

Happy Freedom Day to everyone. Thank you to all of you for remaining Wowos Club Members and ensuring that our club remains sustainable. A special thanks goes to our Shareholders and Diamond Donors respectively who have contributed to the relief fund for Wowos Club Members. We urge you to continue to contribute to the call if you have not done so. 

 

The focus today is on first-time managers. Are you a manager? How do you manage others? 

 

In their book, titled, “The Leadership Pipeline – how to build the leadership powered company”, Charan, Drotter and Noel (2011: 17) wrote, “First-time managers need to learn how to reallocate their time so that they not only complete their assigned work but also help others perform effectively. They cannot allocate all of their time to putting out fires, seizing opportunities, and handling tasks themselves. They must shift from “doing” work to getting work done through others”. 

As President Ramaphosa said today, on this Freedom Day, “brick by brick, let’s build this country”. 

Wowos Parent Club (WPC) Webinar with Zibuse L. Kunene

27 October 2020

 

Molweni Shareholders and Wowos, 

 

I hope you are all doing well. 

 

In case you missed it, the first Wowos Parent Club (WPC) Webinar with Zibuse L. Kunene – the Founder of Conversations with Friends and Member of Dads in the Picture took place this evening. The talk was powerful. Zibu spoke about parenting today. Follow this link and catch this conversation: https://www.facebook.com/groups/18971287192/permalink/10159014371787193/.  

 

Zibuse has set the standard very high. If you are going to be a speaker in Wowos Club, please watch the recording. 

Regards, 

Wonga 

 

Wowos Career Engaging Club and Wowos Business Club

19 October 2020

 

Molweni Shareholders and Wowos, 

 

According to Kufour, former President of Ghana, “Sub-Sahara Africa’s population is expected to hit 1.5 billion by 2050 when the world’s population will be about 7 billion”. In that address, dating back to 2010, he also stated that the percentage of Africa’s working age population will rise to 65% and therefore job creation will be imperative. It is for this reason that we established two cohorts in Wowos Club. The first cohort is Wowos Career Engaging Club aimed at fast-tracking Wowos to build professional careers. The second cohort is Wowos Business Club, aimed, not only to fast-track Wowos businesses, but to open opportunities for Wowos to get jobs. 

 

If you are a business owner in Wowos and you require certain services, please share these with us and let us employ a Wowo! For example, some of the services that Wowos are willing to do for your business are: 

 

  1. Virtual Executive Personal Assistant (VEPA) – let me know if you are looking for a VEPA for your business or personal life; 
  2. Tax Submission – let me know if you are looking for Tax Consultant for yourself or your business; 

Regards, 

Wonga 

There are more cellphones than #television in SouthAfrica

Molweni Shareholders and Wowos, 

 

According to eNCA, “There are more cellphones than #television in SouthAfrica”. 

 

What does this mean? What does it mean for Wowos Business Club Members? 

 

You have to agree that this means that as business leaders we need to remain relevant and leverage the benefits of changes in technology. Wowos Business Club is about serving society working and to make money. We must ensure that we make Wowos customers feel important. But above all, as Thabo Mbeki once stated, “we must further encourage innovation among our people and insure that we introduce new developments into our productive activities”. The innovative and creative ways, we come up with, must solve Africa’s problems. 

 

Kamga (2017: 42) asserts that the leader that gives herself/himself to innovation “will always have a competitive edge”. What we need to do as Wowos is to continuously learn as knowledge and innovation go together. This is why we have a cohort of mentoring, known as Wowos Mentor & Mentee Club (WMMC). Please do join the club and mentor someone if you are good in a particular skill or sector. You are also welcome to join us as a mentee and advise us of what kind of a mentor you are looking for. 

Regards, 

Wonga

Dreams own Directions

14 October 2020

 

Molweni Shareholders and Wowos, 

 

Thought of the day: “Know what you want to achieve and focus the attention on that. You can’t be all things to all people. Be what you can and let others be what they can in a complimentary way” – Ngambi (2011). 

 

I urge Wowos to practise the thought of the day. I have only selected one D from her seven Ds. The one above is about Dreams own Directions. Share with us what you want to achieve. You can even share with us what you have achieved this year – it was not an easy year for most of us! 

 

We must never forget the mission and vision of Wowos Club. Recently, we have seen how the club has managed to adapt under difficult Covid-19 times. We must continue to create, mix & mash and share data and information as widely as possible. It is for such reasons that we continue with cohorts like Wowos Culture and Language Club (WCLC) which remind us that languages are an integral part of what we do. 

 

Cohorts like WPSC will continue to build relationships across racial and gender difference in Wowos Club. While this cohort remains the most vibrant cohort in Wowos Club, we need to interact and communicate effectively with each other and lower the noise (i.e. breakdown in communication). WPSC is composed of leadership that can lead the country and therefore we expect the leadership in this cohort to showcase such. The direct positive output from WPSC needs to feed to the Congress for African Democracy & Economic Liberties (CADEL) and drive the policy-making of this new political party that can lead South Africans.

 

Regards, 

Wonga 

 

The Era of Knowledge Economy and Forth Industrial Revolution (4IR)

18 April 2020

Dear Shareholders and Wowos, 

I hope you are all doing well and safe. 

Tonight I am reflecting on the topic of what then post Covid-19 and I am reminded of the article that I wrote on 17 November 2019 titled, “The Era of Knowledge Economy and Forth Industrial Revolution (4IR): the need to learn new skills. In that article, available here: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/era-knowledge-economy-forth-industrial-revolution-4ir-wonga-ntshinga/, I stated, “Developing countries, such as ours with an unemployment rate of over 29%, need to take note that there will be less and less need for building factories which employ large number of unskilled workers as AI and robotics advances year after year (Ford, 2019). Fernando (2019, p. 33) argues that developing countries must, “face the new reality, accept the job loss and consider encouraging companies to move into new industries that emerge due to AI””

 

I then concluded as follows in that article: 

 

“There is a lot of work and success that has been done and achieved in AI, ML and cognitive computing. However, there is an opportunity in this space and technology development, particularly for data analysts, and judging by the table above, there are still plenty of jobs and careers that remain on demand and that robots will need assistance from.”

 

Regards, 

Wonga 

Protect yourself

We urge Wowos to: 

 

  1. Protect yourself (wear a mask (e.g. Wowos Club Mask), practise social distancing, sanitise and wash your hands (use Wowos Service Providers), don’t touch face, cough into elbow, use a tissue when sneezing); 
  2. Correct method (six point – 20 seconds) for washing of hands – we are looking for a Wowos video to demonstrate this. Record and get a gift voucher from the Founder; 
  3. Sharing of equipment between you, colleagues, family members, and children must be discouraged; 
  4. Supply your children with their own hand sanitiser for frequent use throughout the day.

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